Alexandria – “The Pearl of the Mediterranean” – was named by Alexander the Great and by the year 200 BC, Alexandria was the largest, richest, and most modern city in the world. In 30 BC, Cleopatra ruled Egypt from Alexandria the Capital. Modern Alexandria is far larger than it was, with many legacies from its Greek and Roman history. Alexandria is the chief port and second largest city of Egypt. Alexandria lies on the Mediterranean Sea at the western edge of the Nile Delta. Alexandria has a double harbor formed by a T-shaped peninsula. The Western Desert begins just west of Alexandria, and lake Mareotis is south of the city.